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Determining F-Factors From Gas Chromatographic Analyses
EPA Method 19 provides equations for calculating F-factors for determining particulate matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission rates in mass per unit calorific value, i.e., in pounds per million Btu (lb/mmBtu). Gaseous fuels (e.g., natural gas, coke oven gases, refinery gases, landfill gases, etc), however, are commonly analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and the composition is given as mole or volume percent of the individual compounds. Therefore, to use the equations in Method 19, the gas analysis must first be converted to weight percent.
In addition, a commonly accepted idea about the equations in Method 19 is that the calculated F-factors are at 70°F, rather than at 68°F, which is the EPA standard condition for temperature.1 Therefore, after using the equations in Method 19, the F-factors factors are often multiplied by the temperature ratio of 528/530 to obtain the F-factors at 68°F. However, a re-calculation of the conversion factors shows that the present conversion factors give F-factors close to the standard temperature condition of 68°F, depending on the amount of hydrogen in the fuel.
Presented below are the methodology used to calculate F-factors directly from GC analysis, the derivation of factors used in the calculations, and derivations of the conversion factors used in the Method 19 equations. All F-factors are at 29.92 in. Hg (760 mm Hg, 14.696 psia) and 68°F (20°C). Using the methodology and conversion factors, spreadsheets can easily be established to run the calculations. A spreadsheet may be acquired from Emission Monitoring Inc.
Development and Evaluation of a Portable Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer Based Field Test Method
This paper details the process of developing and evaluating a portable gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer based field test method using an iterative five-step approach. The approach termed the General Approval Process was developed as a means to assist instrument developers and others interested in demonstrating the applicability of new test methods and instrumentation. This approach has been accepted by The EPA as an alternate to conducting innumerable Method 301 validation tests, particularly for those methods that are capable of simultaneous multicomponent analysis from numerous source matrices.
The method has been approved by ASTM as D6420-98. Visit the ASTM website for more information http://WWW.ASTM.org
Development of an Improved Impinger-Based Method for Measuring Chloride and Fluoride Emissions from Cement and Lime Kilns
The measurement of gaseous hydrogen chloride (HCl) in Portland cement and lime kiln effluent poses great challenges because of the reactive nature of both the HCl and the entrained dust in the effluent. It will become necessary for these calcining facilities to measure HCl for the purpose of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant (NESHAP) for area source determinations, demonstrating compliance with state/local regulations, and/or establishing emissions inventories for air permits. This paper presents the results of a laboratory study designed to solve the problems frequently encountered with use of EPA Method 26.
This method has been approved by ASTM as D6735-01. Visit the ASTM website for more information http://WWW.ASTM.org
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